torsdag 20 december 2012

Under the skin pt 3 - Swallowing

"I want a doctor to take a picture so I can look at you from inside aswell"
- The Vapors - Turning Japanese

I'm fascinated by the mechanism and physcial realtity of the body. What is it that we are, under the skin? Not in some metaphorical way, the fleshy actual physical side of us.

I've made a coupe post about this before, 


 And now - swallowing! Here are some awesome x-ray videos of what goes on INSIDE YOU when you eat and drink. I'm drinking coffee and thinking of this. Try it yourself, it's most illuminating!

Why x-ray swallowing? Well, sometimes there can be problems and doctors need to find out exactly what is going on. Is there any muscle that's not reacting the way it should? In order to help the patients they record x-ray videos. X-rays are not harmless, therefore the patients are only subjected to the rays and recording for limited time.



Kittens and bunnyhugs, 

Hed.


onsdag 3 oktober 2012

WHAT TO DO WITH YOUR LIFE?!


I recently got good some advice on what to do with my life.  I thought I'd make a short post with four pieces of good advice that has helped me.

I don't respond well to the entire "you can do anything if you put your mind to it!"-mantra. It gives me stress and anxiety [sic].

I respond better to "take it easy, it'll sort itself out. Things aren't great to begin with, they BECOME great after time and effort."

Advice 1. A New York Time-article
SUM: not everyone knows what their passion is. If you can't decide what path you want to take, just pick one based on external criteria ("I'd like to live in that town!"). As you grow competent you will also become satisfied with the choice, even if all the choices were equally good.

Advice 2. Tim Minchin - If I didn't have you
 SUM: love isn't destiny, it's a symbiotic relationship that grows over time. If I didn't have you, someone else would surely do. But I do have you and I love you more know than before because we've shared more life.

Advice 3. Awesome vlogger and author John Green
 
SUM: there is no one path, you can change your mind. There is no such thing as destiny and even if you narrow the opportunities with each choice you make life is still more flexible than you think.

 
 SUM: No-one is great at something the first time. Being bad at something means you can learn to be better, it's just hard. Don't be afraid to be bad at something or you'll never learn anything new.


lördag 14 juli 2012

What's going on (July 2012)

Hi all and everyone.

I'm in Stockholm and I have summer break, sort of. I've had the opporunity to travel around in Sweden for a bit lately so that's been nice.

I've been making a few videos for the tubes and I wanted to share a two of them. I wouldn't say that I've got this video making business down yet but I'm working on it. I just wanna share my life and thoughts with near and dear who are far away.

Action art

I made a video yesterday about Action art, an art genre that I really like (mainly because I don't have patience for most other art genres). Action art is a form of art where the action of creating is often emphazised more than the acutal result of the creation. An early example is Jackson Pollock's abstract expressionism. Action art can also be sculpture, preformance etc etc. Also: there is beautiful footage of me with paint all over my face ^^.


Curlers!

I also made a cute video of me in pink curly hair that's bearable


Anyway, I'm working on making more videos. I let it take some time because I've got other stuff going on. I'm going to Slovenia in a couple of weeks, I'll put up some footage of that too (only the interesting things I assure you).

All videos I've made so far can be found here.

Kittens and Bunnyhugs!

tisdag 3 juli 2012

Försök till ogenomförbart brott

Foto av Örebro taget av mig 2012-05-19
Ordföranden Dan Sjöstedt i Örebro Tingsrätt i fallet om våldtäktsförsöket på en kvinna som genomgått hormonbehandling ringde just upp mig. Jag skämtar inte.

Jag tänkte jag skulle delge er lite om vad vi diskuterade. Jag har inte antagit att detta handlar om diskriminering av transsexuella (jag tänker tro det bästa om dem tills motsatsen är uppenbar) utan vill istället diskutera vad ett försökt till ett brott är och hur genomföringspotentialen inverkar på domslut.

Örebro tingsrätt har alltså dömt en 61-årig man för misshandel (4 månader fängelse sam 15 000 skadestånd till offret). Åklagaren hade rubricerat brottet "våldtäktsförsök" eftersom mannen haft som uppsåt att våldta kvinnan men sedan avbrutits av "tillfälliga omständigheter". Till saken hör att kvinnan fötts som man och genomgick hormonbehandling. Offret var klädd i kläder som oftast används av kvinnor och förövaren trodde hon hade en fitta. Det är oklart ifall mannen upptäckte detta innan tredje part grep in, av formuleringarna i nyhetsartiklar på ämnet att döma så var det inte så (" under rättegången talade han hela tiden om henne som ”hon”"). Domslutet har formulerat det som att "försöket har dock inte fullbordats, enligt åklagaren på grund av tillfälliga omständigheter", vad dessa omständigheter utgjordes av framgår inte.

Eftersom hon inte hade en vagina menar rätten att brottet inte kunde genomföras och därför kunde mannen inte fällas för försök till det, oavsett uppsåt. Frihetssmedjan har begärt ut det faktiska domslutet och citerar delar av det här.

Jag funderade över domen och tänkte att det vore fint att fråga någon med mer kunskaper om juridik hur det ligger till med försök till brott som inte "går" att genomföra. Han ville våldta en fitta inte en kuk så det finns ingen anledning att påpeka att män också kan våldtas, klart de kan det men i det här fallet tror vi att mannen inte ville det.

De flesta fråga-jurist-ställen riktar sig till folk med frågor om skilsmässa, arv osv så jag mejlade faktiskt Örebro Tingsrätt direkt. Författade ett kort mejl i trevlig men förundrad ton och klickade "skicka". Någon timma sedan ringde ett okänt nummer upp mig. Det var ordföranden i målet Dan Sjöstedt.

Dan Sjöstedt förklarade för mig att de menade att det var i analogi med ett fall med ett mordförsök på en redan död person då rätten dömde att det inte kunde rubriceras som just mordförsök. På samma sätt kan man inte anklagas för ett försök till en handling som man inte kan genomföra.

Jag hävdar att det inte stämmer vid försök, försök är just försök oavsett vad den genomförda brottet är. Ifall kvinnan haft en fitta hade mannen dömts till våldtäktsförsök (tredje part grep ju in), istället dömdes mannen nu till misshandel eftersom handlingen inte kunde fullbordas.

Samma handling, samma uppsåt. I båda fallen rör det sig om misshandel med uppsåt att våldta. I båda fallen avbryts brottet. Troligen avbröts brottet pga tredje part och inte pga upptäckten av avsaknad fitta.

Varför är potentialen till icke-realiserade fullbordade brottet relevant? Speciellt med tanke på att förövaren inte var medveten om det?

Ifall han visste att brottet inte kunde genomföras men ändå försökte, hur hade vi dömt då? Är det förmildrande? Om jag är en inkompentent bankrånare med som inte tror jag klarar av ett rån, är det mindre av ett försök då?

Tänk om mannen var impotent, då hade förmodligen brottet inte heller kunnat fullbordas oavsett om han var medveten om sin impotens eller inte.

Ifall brottet inte avbröts pga tredje part utan pga av upptäckt av avsaknad fitta, hade det varit annorlunda?

Jag vill hävda att anledningen till att brottet avbröts och därigenom blir ett försök och inte ett fullbordat brott är oväsentlig, uppsåtet fanns fortfarande och jag kan knappast föreställa mig att det fysiska förloppet hade varit annorlunda. Anledningen till avbrottet är irrelevant, det är fortfarande ett försök med samma uppsåt.

Vad sänder det för signaler att information som kommer fram senare om brottets genomförningspotential är relevant för domslutet? I fallet med mordförsöket på den döda kanske vi kan anta förövaren hade kännedom om det (eller?) men i detta fall vet vi att förövaren inte visste om att hon inte hade en fitta.

Detta är som Dan Sjöstedt sa till mig alldeles nyss på telefon inte ett glasklart fall och det kommer troligen överklagas till hovrätten. Linjen behöver dras på ett tydligt ställe för fall av detta slaget, just nu är lagen inte tydlig på den här punkten.

Åklagaren menade att detta var ett våldtäktsförsök och ifall kvinnan orkar med är det nog troligt att de överklagar. Det är inte lätt att gå igenom men en sådan här process och ifall kvinnan inte vill gå vidare har jag full förståelse.

Tydligen var det mycket ovanligt att folk hörde av sig, jag verkade vara den enda, så han tyckte det var en bra idé att ringa upp och tala om det. Vi hade en mycket artigt och väluppfostrad konversation och jag förstår absolut tingsrättens domslut även om jag inte håller med.

Frågor kvarstår: hur behandla försök till brott som är ogenomförbara? Ska anledningen till att brottet avbrutits ta i beaktning? Är förövaren och offrets "kapaciteter" viktiga för domslutet?

T.ex. om jag är för dum för att förstå hur ett bankrån bör gå till och därför missyckas, är det annorlunda än om jag blev avbruten av annan anledning. Om jag är en inkompetent brottsling och därför misslyckas med ett brott är det annorlunda än om tredje part stoppar det?

Vidare kan man fundera på vad som händer i sk "hatspråksfall", om jag t.ex. skriker nedsättande termer för romer till en iranier är det mindre illa eftersom jag inte förolämpade personen "egentligen"? Är den handlingen "ogenomförbar"?

Är inte själva grejen med försök just uppsåtet? Det är väl det som gör att vi ens fäller för det och inte bara för de "fysiska konskevenserna"? Annars skulle vi bara intressera oss för fullbordade brott samt den skada försöken potentiellt medförde? I detta fall dömdes mannen för just de "fysiska kosekvenserna" (misshandel) men inte för försök för att målet med uppsåtet inte var möjligt.

Jag är lingvistikstudent och aspirerande forskare, jag vill tänka igenom det här konskevent och logiskt - argument om att något är bara "sunt förnuft" (att inte döma en inkomptent brottsling för att den inte kan/hunnit skada någon) tycker jag är svaga ifall de inte backas upp av mer. Lagen ska inte bygga på "sunt förnuft" och känslor utan på genomtänkta och konsekventa argument. Jag har inte höga förväntningar på min rättstat, jag har rätt förväntningar.

Om jag planerar ett bombdåd får jag ett straff för det även om jag inte hann skada någon därför att jag hade uppsåt.

Samtidigt kan jag förstå att det är svårt att definera vad som är försök till brott. Om jag tror att jag går in i en bank men så inte är fallet, är det då ett bankrånförsök ändå? Jag inser att mitt argument inte går att dra hur långt som helst, men jag tycket ändå det borde täcka t.ex. fallet i fråga med kvinnan i Örebro.

Så, detta var det vi talade om. Det ska bli intressant att se om domslutet överklagas och vad som i så fall händer i hovrätten.

När jag inte förstår något som jag tycker är viktigt att förstå så frågar jag. Lagboken och andra juridiska handlingar är extremt svåra för lekmän att förstå eller ibland ens relatera till. Det är en fjärran värld av godtydliga verkshöjder och märkliga motiveringar.

Jag vet att jag inte kan mycket om det här och jag uppskattar att Dan Sjöstedt tog sig tid att tala med mig, vi må inte tycka lika dant men nu vet jag lite mer om varför de argumenterade som de gjorde.

söndag 29 april 2012

Internet Exile

I am currently without a charger for my computer and without easy access to internet. 
I have a couple blog posts that I intend to finish up and publish soon, but right now I wanna make the most of my few days here in Winnipeg.

I'm leaving on Thursday. Today is Sunday. I haven't fully understood that I'm leaving.
I've found good people here. I've been in many places, I've met lots of people. I can tell when I meet people that I fully...  like. So I feel sad about leaving them. Because I know how far between it can be between them.

In Swedish we say that people can click with each other. I've clicked with them. 

I like Winnipeg, it's a nice city. I don't agree with the natives of this town who always question why I chose to come here. I like it here, a lot. I like the department of Linguistics at University of Manitoba, a lot. 

I feel sad about leaving. I don't want to think about it. I wanna stay longer. I also feel sad about how hard it is to express sincerity about these things... it all sounds so cliché and polite. I really, really like this city and the people I've met here. I hope they can understand that. I feel powerless when it comes to expressing feelings with language.

So.. since I'm in Internet Exile I'll put up a few photos of what I've been up to in the IRL-world. 


Me and Kristine at Brandens house outside of Winnipeg. Right before we went out quading in the dark plains of Manitoba. Not the first but the second meaning of the term "quading" as listed by urban dictionary..

1. having sex with a quadriplegic
2. 4Wheeling


 I posed like Rosie the Riveter and bleached my hair. Or rather, Branden bleached my hair ^^!
Went to the zoo with Meera, Sean, Kristina and Branden. Saw pretty birds and cute pandas and a huge construction site for the new polar bear exhibit they're building.

I found Yifan Liu and discovered how much fun she is to party with! 

 I found out that shared not only taste in beer with Jesse but also 
opinions about the left movements in North America. Good stuffs.

 Skated at the forks :)
 I drew a picture for Branden. It took a couple of days but I'm quite satisfied ^^!


 Went walking in the sunset
 Had poutine.
 Went to derby scrimmage 
Went to a quiet fashion show.

Hung out with wonderful pretty Sean.

Bye bye for now, talk soon.

fredag 13 april 2012

Winnipeg: Orange Jell-o

Orange Jello-O
Movie still from My Winnipeg
In the fictional movie My Winnipeg (Guy Maddin 2008) there is a period know as the "Orange Jello-O-days". During that period decadence ruled and at The Bay on Portage there was a restaurant called the Paddlewheel where they held Man-pageants. Women watching men parading, showing of their bodies. The citys Mayor selected the winner - The Golden Boy. The Paddlewheel sold orange - golden - jello as dessert. Everything was wonderful and sinful.

There was actually a mayor called Mayor Cornish, just like in the movie. But he was mayor in the late 1800's.. so. Yeah no.

On Sebastians birthday, the 24th of February, we went to a restaurant on Edmonton St here in Winnipeg called Affinitiy garden. It was really good and all (the Seitan and the noodles were very veryyy good), but what was most exciting was the Tea Jelly! It was orange and tasted of vanilla, much like Crème Brûlée. Here are two very short clips of us and the jelly. I have no idea if they know anything about the movie and the connotations of the orange jello - I doubt it.

video video

Point being:
very exciting to have had orange jell-o in Winnipeg in presence of a hot guy.

Here are some more stills from the movie:






Isn't it just wonderful? It's a kinda hard movie to watch, you have to be in the right mood. It's very slow in the beginning and the narrative is broken into many pieces. Once you get into it though it's a great, great movie. It's hysterically funny, especially if you know Winnipeg.

North American Cuisine
They're crazy about their jello-o over here, really.  I found this awful recipe of Jell-o fruit salad. I mean, come on.. you... you just.. CAN'T DO THAT!!

North americans don't care about what is appropriate in the "old" world, it's like the parents are gone and the kids have the house to themselves. They come up with the weirdest combinations of foods, many things that would be considered very vulgar and barbaric in europe. Like mayonnaise on sushi.. (I know you like it Sean and it's okay ^^).

Not to mention the culture of being able to specialize your order like kah-razy. "White Mocha Non-Fat Frappucino with Caramel"... I feel like the mum in Goodbye Lenin: I want there to be only one option!!

I don't think it's all bad, they are being more creative and they think outside the box... it's just... I'm a poor little european and I feel it's WRONG. And then there's the architecture, they just go bananas!! They have lots of space here on the prairies and no shortage of concrete. I like that though, I reeaaally like that. It's fun with all the weird designs they come up with, even the ugly ones. At least they're doing something new!

I've never felt so european as I do here, not swedish but european. I find my self missing London, Paris and Leipzig. I'm not even from there!!

I like it that "european" here means... loose morals (or plain erotic), experimental, snobby, pretentious, superior and interesting. I understand it's no fun getting stereotyped but... but I enjoy this stereotype ^^
Bye bye!

P.s. This boy is called Branden (->) and his favorite expression when he likes something is "golden" ^^.  I like how Winnipeg has the "Golden Boy"on the legislative building and that the jello is golden orange. My theme for my farewell party was "Gold and Canada" and everybody that it was really strange. Looks like I was on to something!! HA! Look who's laughing now!!
Branden told me that Winnipeg is the Slurpie (kinda like Slush Puppies) Capital of the world. This needs to be investigated!

Absurd Animations

I am a big fan surreal and absurd animations (or art in general). A big fan. Animation is such a playful media, you can do so much!
I wanted to share with you four of my favorite surreal animations. If you like this kinda stuff I recommend subscribing to Channel Frederator on the tubes. They have a short weekly show were they discuss and recommend new up and coming animations.

Who I am and What I want
"I want to me a part of the interal workings and crushed within them"
Brilliant animation by David Shrigley. 
Absolutely brilliant. Stunningly brilliant and awesome. Period.
Thank you Raoul for showing it to me the first time.
David Shrigley has also made a music video for Blur's song
"Good song
". It is also epicly good.
Sleeping and Dreaming of Food
by awesome artist Kolbeinn Karlsson and animator Eva-Marie Elg.
 I'm sorry it's only a trailer. You can see some more stills and stuff on their website. Kolbeinn is from Uppsala just like me but we became friends in Stockholm through Galago-parties.
Kolbeinn is an awesome artist and a wonderful person. He has left Mälardalen for Malmö though.  (WHY MUST ALL AWESOME PEOPLE MOVE TO MALMÖ?!?! Don't tell me, I know why.. it's an very nice place, less stressful and people are more..
close, making spontaneity easier.)
 
Fuck the humans
"They don't fucking have fur!"
By Brad Neely
I don't know anything about the creator of this song or animation.
But I love it!

DOCTOR BREAKFAAST
"Looks like you're giving that naked man a bath"
by Stephen P Neary
A beautiful story of real friendship!
I love it so much! Especially the voice actors

Greetings from the rainy prairies!
It's pouring down outside so I'm inside having beer and burgers. Hope you're all alright.

tisdag 3 april 2012

Reese, Cely and gifs of Men

Let's take a minute away from the seriousness of science and other serious issues. Let's talk about men and chocolate.

I love Reese. I really REALLY love Reese. I've found someone who also loves Reese as much as I do. She is awesome and her name is Cely. Her blog is about all kinds of things that interested her, like REESES(!!), cute dogs and sexy men. And also running [sic].


I love to eat Reese’s cups, like LOVE them so much I can eat 10 at once. In comes the “running off” part. I run to eat. period. the end. I love Reese’s cups so now I have to like running.

That's the most inspiring thing I've ever heard, when it comes to motivating people to start running. I mean it, I've never heard a better argument in my life. I seriously have to rethink my position on running now.


Gifs of men
.gif is a fileformat for pictures and is most often used for a very short series of pictures shown after each other and is looped, see below. Gifs were very, very popular in the beginning of when the internets became a public space.
On mondays this Cely girl posts a lot of gifs and static pictures of hot men.

In case you're having a bad day or something, here is something to lighten your day: some my favorites gifs of hot guys.

Just thought you'd be interested ;)

torsdag 29 mars 2012

Under the skin pt 2.5 - blowing instruments

This is a smaller post, more of a side-note to the previous one on the speech aparatus. If you wanna read the first part on BRAINS and illusions of body ownership go here.
I was surfing around the internets looking for interesting x-rays when I found videos of people using their speech apparatus for other things than speech - blowing instruments! I just wanted to share them with you. Aren't they marvelous :)?


I think they're really interesting because they show the function that the pulmonic pressure (pressure from the lungs) and the shape of the lips play. Sometimes the note changes but we see no/little change in the upper parts of the vocal tract, and that's because of stuff going on further down or because of the lips.

Now let's enjoy some sweet sweet jazz.


And some "sexy" saxophone
(quite impressive what he can do lying down actually)

and why not the great meme of 'sax rolling' while were at it :)?

Bye bye!
P.s. Here's another great clip of x-ray blowing!

onsdag 28 mars 2012

Under the skin pt 2 - Speech apparatus

We continue to look under the skin. If you wanna see the previous post on BRAINS and illusions of body ownership go here. This post is about the speech apparatus and contains a short introduction to phonetic symbols. If you wanna see some x-rays of trumpet blowing go here.

"I want a doctor to take a picture so
I can look at you from inside aswell"

The Speech Apparatus

Female subject saying ''både'' (eng: both)
Pictures from Christine Ericsdotter's website
Female subject exploring her vocal tract
Pictures from Christine Ericsdotter's website
Male subject saying ''pion''[piun]
Pictures from Christine Ericsdotter's website
 These images are from Christine Ericsdotter's website, go there to learn more about the project! I believe they have been modified slightly to accentuate lines separating different "soft parts".

Christine Ericsdotter

Christine Ericsdotter was one of my teachers in my first years of linguistics. She was a wonderful teacher and I wish I could take courses with her again. She is a phonetician which means that she is interested in speech communication - aspects of production and perception of speech, how humans create and register different language sounds and speech.
 
The study behind the images above
Christine and many others from the phonetics section of the department of linguistics at Stockholm university have been involved in a study that took place at the Danderyd hospital. They did x-rays of people when the spoke. The aim was to learn more about dental and retroflexive stops (different types of consonants) and their variation in different vowel contexts.

The subjects were subjected to as little radiation as possible, all appropriate safety requirements were met. The radiation dose was smaller than that of a typical visit to the dentist.

She's uploaded a few pictures from this study on her website. I love looking at them, suddenly everything I've learned about the vocal tract becomes so much more concrete. Please read more about the project here.

The vocal tract

 When we articulate we make all kinds of complex movements with our vocal tracts. We do not only make use of the tongue, as you can see from the images above. We make use of the velum (the thing in the back that closes the passage to the nose in the third image above), the lips, the vocal folds (way low in the throat) and much more.

It is not an easy task to master all of these tiny little muscles and produce the right sounds, yet it takes us so little time to acquire! Wonders of the mind and body. Take a look at the images above again- they represent one word per picture. We do that everyday, all the time - and way faster than that. Isn't it fascinating?


The IPA
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an attempt to represent the sounds we make. Those representations will always be averages, means and estimations. Each speaker has a distinct acoustic environment and will sound different. When we want to modify a sound to fit a sound in a certain language in greater detail there is an range of different small extra symbols we can add to further specify the sound.

The IPA is not a collection of arbitrary sounds, there is a system to it. If you studied the IPA-chart and learned the logic behind it it would make way more sense. Unfortunately teachers in most schools just give out a list of crazy symbols and poor explanations of how it all hangs together. This often results in a quite useless exercise to try and remember weird symbols and their pronunciation without a understanding of how sounds of languages work.

English alphabet ≠ IPA 
Please keep in mind that even though IPA uses latin script this does not mean that the symbols are pronounced the same way that the letters of the english, swedish, french, etc alpabeth. Never forget that!
For example:
<through> - [θɹu]
<kidney> - [ˈkɪdni]
<scruffy> - [ˈskɹʌ.fi]
<diving> -
[ˈdaɪvɪŋ]

Also, there is great variation between individuals and groups of individuals (dialects etc). A certain sound may be produced different by different speakers. A phonetic transcription aims to capture this in great detail. A phonological transcription does not represent this variation but uses one symbol (phoneme) to represent a group of sounds (phones) that are used in exactly the same context.
An example would be the many different ways of producing an "r"-sound in Swedish. In a phonetic transcription they would all be different but in a phonological they would be represented with the same symbol.

International Phonetic Alpabeth-guide in swedish
If you are Swedish and you wanna learn more about the International Phonetic Alphabet or just language and sounds in general, then I recommend this folder that I've created. It's a basic introduction to how sounds are treated in linguistics. There are a few minor mistakes in it, I'm sorry about that.


Vowel chart
The folder and the IPA-chart contains a vowel chart. The vowel chart is meant to be used as a representation of how phonetic symbols representing vowels relate to each other.
First of all: image the vowel chart as actually representing the vocal tract like this:
Vowel chart and it's relation to the vocal tract. Cred: Mikael Parkvall
The location of the phonetic symbols represents where the tongue is positioned. If you want to see examples of how place of articulation plays a role than watch these videos of trumpet blowing and pay attention to where the toungue is when the notes are produced.
Then we go on to place out some more characters on our little map like so:


The vowels are arranged in pairs, the right is pronounced with rounded lips and the left with unrounded lips.


One of the things Christine taught me
Christine taught me a little phrase in Swedish that can help one remember how the four front unrounded vowels and the four back rounded are pronounced: "vi ber fem man dra bort vårt bord"

See? Isn't it clever? I think it is terribly clever. 


Bye bye now,
See you around hottie!
References:
Ericsdotter, C. (1999): Modeling lingual coarticulation in coronal stops. Master Thesis in Phonetics, Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University & Deparment of Speech, Music and Hearing, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Spring 1999.

p.s. Om du är grundkursstudent i lingvistik och fann "vi ber fem man dra bort vårt bord" hjälpsamt kan jag också tipsa om en minnesregel för Hocketts 13 designdrag för naturligt mänskligt talat språk: GRÅTT TUSS SUPA.
  • Godtycklighet
  • Röst-hörsel-kanal
  • Åtskildhet (aka diskrethet)
  • Tvånivåsystem
  • Traditionell överföring
  • Total återkoppling
  • Utväxlingsbarhet
  • Semanticitet
  • Specialisering
  • Snabbt avtagande
  • Utsänd överföring med lokaliserad mottagning
  • Produktivitet
  • Avlägensenhet (displacement)
Jupp, jag ska bli seriös lingvist jag :)!